Romany Place Names
Romany Names of Continents and Countries
Toponyms in Romany language exist only for countries in which Roma people live, otherwise, geographic names are referred to in the common language of the host country. Consequently, there are not Romany names for most of the states of Asia and Africa, like India, Thailand, Kenya or Nigeria, in which there are no Roma residents. Regarding Europe and the Americas, there are often different names for the same places, according to the dialect spoken by Romany groups, and city names are usually known only by the local Roma but unknown for the others, as for example, Romanichals have their own designations for British towns, Sinti for Italian ones or Gitanos for Spanish places. Roma usually identify states according to the major language spoken in them rather than by their actual boundaries, or even keep historic designations, mainly from the recent period (as for example, Yugoslavia, for any of the Republic emerged from that Federation, or Russia for Ukraine and any other former Soviet Republic).
Here we present a list of place names in Kalderash Romany, with alternative designations in Sinti dialect for Central European countries. All toponyms need the article: "o" for male names, "e" or "i" for female names, and "e" for plural names.
e Amérika e Barí (literally: "America the Great")
e Amérika e Telaní (literally: "Lower America")
Australia e Austrália Antarctica e Antártika
e Maškarthemeski Mária (literally: "Sea Among Countries")
e Mária e Báltika
Black Sea e Mária e Kalí Caspian Sea e Mária e Káspia Red Sea e Mária e Lolí
European countries have different names according to the prevailing Romany group, therefore, while in the Eastern European states the choice for a standard designation favours the Kalderaš Romany and related dialects, in Central and Western Europe the preferred names are those given by Sinti and local Romany groups ‒ notwithstanding, Kalderaš names are mentioned as second choice.
For the American Continent, all countries are called by their own national names, except Argentina, Brazil and the United States.
Armenia e Armenia Austria e Estraxari (Sinti); e Ávstria (Kalderaš) 1 Belarus' e Rusía e Parní (literally, "White Russia")
Bosnia-Herzegovina e Bósnia
China o Kitáitso Croatia e Hórvatska Czech o Čéxo Denmark e Dánia Egypt o Egypto England e Ánglia Estonia e Estónia Finland e Finska / o Finsko France e Váltši (Sinti); o Franzúso (Kalderaš) Georgia e Grúzia Germany o Gáčkano (Sinti); o Namtso (Kalderaš) Great Britain e Barí Británia (very formal, usually called "Ánglia", England) Greece o Grečko Hungary o Úngriko / o Mážarsko Iceland e Islánda Ireland e Irlánda Israel o Israel Italy e Italiya Latvia e Látvia Lithuania e Lítva Luxembourg o Luksembúrgo Macedonia e Makedónia Moldavia e Moldova Montenegro e Tsrnagóra Netherlands e Xolándia Norway o Norsko / e Norska Poland e Polska Portugal o Portogalo Romania e Rumanía Russia e Rusía Scotland e Skótia Serbia e Sirbiya Slovakia e Slovačka Slovenia e Sloveniya Spain e Spánia (Kalderaš) ‒ e Sérse (in Spanish Romanó dialect) Sweden o Svédo Switzerland e Šváitza Turkey o Xoraxái 2 Ukraine e Ukraína United States e Amerika e Barí (the same as North America, literally "Great America")
* All names are in standard Kalderaš Romany unless otherwise specified. 1 Austria is often considered by Romany groups from a history viewpoint rather than by its present status:
ˇ In the case of Sinti, the name "Estraxari", derived from Österreich, is also used as designation for Sinti sub-groups from the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.
ˇ In the case of Eastern Roma, the same empire is referred to as "Úngriko" (Hungary), and this designation often includes Austria, Slovenia, Transylvania and former Czechoslovakia, while Ávstria is a recent introduction into Romany for the single country. It is also used the term "Namtso" (meaning "Germany") in reference to Austria, because of the official German language of that country.
2 "Xoraxái" or "Xoraxané" is a general designation for "Saracenes", regardless their actual nationality or ethnicity. Although this term was originally applied to all Arabs, Persians, Turks and Indians, and is still widely used to indicate all these peoples and any other dwelling from Morocco to India, it acquired more specifical reference to the Turks, since Balkan Roma had been closely in touch with the Ottoman Empire for centuries. Even Turkicized Roma are called Xoraxané. Therefore, at present this term is the Romany name for Turkey.
Islamic lands are defined as "Nasulimaske Themá". Single states are called according to the name by which they are known in the language of the host country, as there are no Romany specific names for them, with exception of Egypt, that is "Egypto", a country that belongs to traditional Romany folk stories.
Romany Country Names for Europe and the Mediterranean Basin