The Peoples List
The Kushitic peoples are the main Hamitic group. Their original land was the Lower Mesopotamia, where they settled the first civilization: the Sumerian. One of their cities was Kysh, after Kush's name. That geographic area was still called "Kush" even for a long time after Kushites were no longer there. In the most ancient records the whole Arabia was commonly designed under the generic name of "Kush", which was extended throughout the entire region comprised between Southern Mesopotamia in the north and the White Nile Basin in the south. Kushites then settled in the South of Egypt and founded the nation of Ethiopia.
Even though the name Kush is usually associated with Ethiopia because of the Greek translation of that name, Kushite peoples were in early times the inhabitants of the whole Arabia, Southern Mesopotamia, Elam and a branch of them reached India as well. Indeed, in ancient records the term Kush may have different meanings and often it can be understood only by the context, and it is possible to distinguish at least four different lands which in some periods were known as "Kush": Sumer, the Horn of Africa, India and Arabia.
Egypt. Mitzrayim is a plural name, likely in reference to the "Two Egypts". This patriarch is identified with Menesh, the founder of the Egyptian. Ancient Egyptians called their land "Khemet", meaning "The Land of Cham", who was Mitzrayim's father and Noach's son.
However, there were other peoples descended from Mitzrayim in Northern Arabia as well. The Assyrian records mention Kűsh and Mušuri in reference to the Northern Arabian peoples conquered by Asarhaddon, as a different event from his conquest of Egypt, and the same peoples are mentioned as tributaries by earlier Assyrian kings, who have not conquered Egypt. These names recall the Biblical brothers Kush and Mitzrayim, namely Ethiopia and Egypt, very closely associated in ancient times but obviously located in Africa. Sargon II mentions the king of Mušuri together with those of other kingdoms, all of them located in Arabia. Therefore, we find both names also on the Arabian side of the Red Sea, which is attested by several Assyrian documents.
Ancient Libic peoples, forefathers of all North-Africans.
Canaanites were the first inhabitants of present-day Israel, Lebanon and Western Syria. They are known in history as "Phoenicians", the name given them by Greeks, but they called themselves "Kan'ana". The term Canaanites, then, is applied to a group of peoples settled in that area, and specifically to Phoenicians. Those Canaanites who inhabited the land that now is Israel were extinct as an ethnic identity, because they intermarried with Hebrews and became Israelites. Jews are among their present-day descendants.
An Ethiopic people whose ancient name was "Habasat" –hence, "Abyssinia"–; they inhabited the African coast of Southern Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.
It is difficult to identify this Havilah, though it seems to refer to the area between Elam and Shinar, called also "Kush", or else the Eastern coast of Arabia, by the Persian Gulf.
Sabatan, a pre-Semitic people of Yemen, settled in the area of Shabwah, that became the capital of Hadhramawt. This people was assimilated by Semitic Sabeans.
The pre-Semitic "Himayar", in the South of Yemen, term that was adopted by Sabean "Himyarites", whose kingdom was also called "Dhu-Raydan".
The pre-Semitic "Qataban", in the East of Yemen. Qataban was taken as official name by Sabeans that settled there and founded their own kingdom.
SHEVA (of Ra'amah)
The pre-Semitic Sabeans. They mixed with the Semitic Sabeans and are undistinguishable from them in Yemenite history, as the pre-Semitic period has left rare traces.
The pre-Semitic Mineans, also known as "Dedanites". Like all Hamitic peoples of ancient Arabia, they mixed with the Semitic people after them.
The founder of the Sumerian nation and the first settlements in Mesopotamia. He extended his colonies to the North. He founded Babel at Barsippa (word that means "Tower of the Languages"); then the city was re-founded by Semites in a place nearby in the South.
LUDIM, ANAMIM, LEHAVIM
Egyptian tribes, or probably some of the Sea Peoples.
Egyptian tribe settled in the area of Nof, the city of Memfis.
Egyptian tribe settled in Pathros, name of the Upper Egypt.
The "Sea Peoples", that were originally settled in the coasts of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and in the islands, mainly in the area between the South of Canaan and the Nile Delta. These peoples were the following: Shekelesh, Shardana, Tsikel or Thekker, Akhaiusha or Ekwesh, Danauna or Denyen, Masa or Meshuesh, Uashesh, Teresh or Tursha, Keshesh or Karkisha, Lukka or Rukka, and Labu. Some of them are easily recognizable:
Tzikel: settled in the area of Dor, then also in Tziklag in Southern Canaan, allied with Cretans and Philistines, emigrated in Eastern Sicily and gave the present name to that island: Tzekelya. – Not to be confused with the Shekelesh, who were probably the Ashkelonians, a branch of the Philistines.
Shardana: it seems that their origin was in the area of Sardis, in Anatolia, but in early times they settled in Canaan, to emigrate and remain definitively in Sardinia, to which they gave the name. Their particular buildings (nuraghe) are found only in Canaan besides Sardinia, and the ancient altars in that island are still called with the Canaanite term "tophet".
Pelesati: the original Philistines, that subsequently mixed with Cretans and the Anakim.
The ancient Cretans of the Minoic civilization. The island of Crete was called "Keftiu" by Egyptians. Their magnificent civilization disappeared suddenly and groups of them settled in Southern Canaan coastland. They became one people with Philistines.
The Hittites or "Hattians". Their original stock was lost. In fact, the ancient Hatti were quite different from what the more popular Hittites were. They inhabited in Canaan and had close relationships with Hebrews, but the largest group emigrated to Anatolia and were overwhelmed by the Indo-European "Nesili", commonly known as Hittites. They founded a powerful empire whose capital was Hattusas.
The Elamites are still considered a people of difficult classification, yet the original stock is likely to have been close to Chaldeans, but after settling beyond the Hidekel (Tigris) they mixed with other peoples (Kushites), to become the historic Elamites – from whom also Persians originated.
The main Assyrian tribe, after which the whole nation is called. They were the leading Semitic people, whose civilization determined the whole Semitic culture and heritage.
Akkadians; Assyrian tribe whose capital was the city of Akkad. They settled in Mesopotamia and overcame Sumerians, then joined Ashur contributing to the final identity of the Assyrian nation. Their original homeland was Arrapkha, in Eastern Assyria (land that was later hold by the Hurrians, and annexed to Assyria after the fall of Mitanni). Avraham was an Akkadian resident in Ur 'of the Chaldeans', that is Arpakhshad's original territory, Ur-Kashdim, or Arraphka. The main line of the "Arpakhshadites" were the Akkadians of history, and a branch of them were known as Habiru.
An Aramean tribe often erroneously identified with Lydians, who were not Semitic. Lud is to be identified with Lihyanites, a people of Northern Arabia that mixed with Minean tribes.
The Arameans, later identified as Syrians. The term "Aramean" in ancient times was equal to "Semite" in our days, as all Semitic peoples were generally called "Aramean peoples". Assyrian language is widely known as Aramaic, and Mesopotamia –that was Assyrians' land– is called "Aram-Nahrayim" in Hebrew (Aram of the Rivers). Aramaic was the international language and was official even in the Persian Empire instead of Persian language. All Semitic languages are related with Aramaic.
UTZ, HUL, GETER, MASH
Aramean tribes between Southern Syria and Northern Arabia.
"Qahtan", patriarch of the tribes of Southern Arabia that overcame all Hamitic peoples previously settled in the same area and mixed with them. Qahtan may also be identified with Qataban, though all Qahtanites are generally called "Sabeans". According to Arabs, Qahtan (Southern peoples) and Adnan (Northern peoples) were the founders of their nation. Qahtan is also listed as the first king of Himayar.
One of the "Southern Arabian" tribes.
The B'ney Sulaf, in Yemen.
Hadhramawt, a Sabean nation settled in the territory of Savtah, whose capital city was Shabwah. "Hatzar-mavet" means "Court of Death".
One of the "Southern Arabian" tribes, near the area of present-day Oman.
One of the Sabean tribes.
Awsan, a Sabean nation in the South of Yemen, is also the ancient name of San'a.
One of the Minean tribes. It was suggested that their original land was by the river Tigris because this river's name is Diklat in Akkadian and Idiklat in Assyrian, but it is unlikely that this tribe was so far away from all other Yoqtanites.
One of the "Yemenite" tribes, by the southernmost shore of the Red Sea.
One of the "Southern Arabian" tribes, near the area of present-day Oman.
The Sabeans, who founded the most important civilization in Yemen and dominated all Southern Arabia, so that all peoples of that area were generally known as "Sabeans". They settled in the same territory where pre-Semitic Sabeans were and mixed with them, as well as Himayar, that became a Sabean kingdom. Sheva exerted hegemony over the whole Arabian Peninsula in ancient times.
This land has been of difficult identification, and was thought to be the Punt (the Horn of Africa); yet, it is more likely the South of India, that had intense trade with Sheva and Israel in Shlomoh's times.
The Semitic Havilah is to be identified with the land known as "Khawlan", in Yemen. Havilah is often mentioned together with Sheva.
One of the Minean tribes. Akkadians called them Yabibi, while in Sabean inscriptions they are mentioned as Yuhaibab.
One of the tribes close to the Midyanites.
The main tribe of the land known as "Khayappa" by Assyrians, in close relationship with Midyanites, Ishmaelites and Sabeans. Their territory was within the Red Sea and Mesopotamia, in Northern Arabia.
One of the tribes close to the Midyanites.
The Midyanites' original land was Sinai, by the Eastern coast of the Gulf of Eylat, and the North-Eastern coast of the Red Sea, from where they extended their territory and influence in a vast area up to Southern Syria. They assimilated other tribes and mixed also with Ishmaelites, so that both terms became equally applied to any Northern Arabian tribe.
One of the tribes close to the Midyanites.
One of the tribes close to the Midyanites, whose territory was near Edom.
This Sheva is a Lihyanite tribe in Northwest Arabia, closer to Midyanites and mixed with them.
A Lihyanite tribe. One of their capitals was Al-'Ulah, in Northwest Arabia.
The Ashurim (not to be confused with the Assyrians) were described as "travelling merchants"; the Letushim were those who "sharpened weapons"; and the Le'ummim were somewhat enigmatically described as "chiefs of those who inhabit the isles", the significance of which phrase is now lost to us. From this information, it would appear that they were very similar to the Qeynites who inhabited within Midyanites and Israelites, and are identifiable with tribes of Gypsies (Gypsies are still known as "Ashura" by Indians).
One of the main five Midyanite tribes, reported by Assyrian inscriptions as "Hayappa", in the Northern Arabian desert.
One of the main five Midyanite tribes, reported by Assyrian inscriptions as "Apparu", settled near Yatrib (Medinah).
One of the main five Midyanite tribes, in the Sinai area.
One of the main five Midyanite tribes, reported by Minean inscriptions as "Abiyadi".
One of the main five Midyanite tribes, reported by Minean inscriptions as "Yada'il".
The Ishmaelites are the people identified with the early inhabitants of Northern Arabia and subsequently also most of Syria. They gradually mixed with all peoples settled in those territories, who acquired the generic denomination of "Arabs". However, they are not the forefathers of all present-day Arabs, but only of a minority of them in the Northern Arabian region, up to Syria. Ishmaelites were twelve tribes in origin: Nevayot, Qedar, Adbe'el, Mivsam, Mishmah, Dumah, Massa, Hadar, Teyma, Yetur, Naphish, and Qedmah; most of them gave the name to towns in the North of Arabia and were mentioned by Assyrian records as part of Khayappa (together with some Midyanite tribes). Two of them had a more important role: Nevayot and Qedar.
The Nabateans, who founded the first "Arab" civilization, originally in the Northwest of Arabia. Then they conquered Edom and settled their capital at Yoqte'el (Petra), and Syria, being Tadmor (Palmyra) their capital.
Qedar was the Arabian tribe closer to Babylon, then mixed with Nabateans.
The ancient Hebrews, an Akkadian people that settled in Kana'an and assimilated some Canaanite groups. They adopted the national name of ISRAELITES, were divided in 13 tribes. They are actually the oldest existing people that has ever owned the land of Canaan and the only one that has right to claim its total possession, as well as the only people that has ever had a State whose capital has been Yerushalaym (Jerusalem). In early times the Israelites settled colonies in the lands of Sheva and Ofir. Subsequently, as consequence of deportations and exile, they are present in almost every country.
The Edomites, a people of mixed Hebrew and Canaanite background, settled in the desert area around the mount Se'ir, overcoming the Hurritic inhabitants of that land. Their culture was influenced by neighbouring Midyanites and Ishmaelites, that finally assimilated them, and Edomites (or Idumeans) have disappeared as ethnic entity.
MO'AV and AMMON
Moabites and Ammonites were a mixed people of Akkadian, Amorite and probably Hurritic background that settled in the East of the Dead Sea (Moabites) and the Yarden (Ammonites). As well as the Edomites, they were assimilated by the Nabateans and disappeared from history; nevertheless, the ancient Ammonite capital, Rabbah, still keeps the people's name: Amman.
The ancient Cimmerians, to whom Assyrian chronicles refer as "Gimirrai", a barbaric people that was wandering between the Caspian Sea and Anatolia. The Celtic peoples, or Gallic for Romans. Their ethnic name, Cymru, is present in many toponyms in different countries, as Cymru (Wales), Umbria, Northumbria, Cumberland, etc; while their Roman name is present in others like Galica, Galicia, Britain, etc.
The peoples originated in Magog were widely diversified, yet in ancient times they were known as Scythians. They have been often associated with Cimmerians and shared with them the lands between Anatolia and the Southern shore of the Caspian Sea. After Assyrian and Persian pressure, they emigrated towards the steppes of Central Asia.
The ancient Medes, who founded an empire in association with Persians. They originated probably most of the Iranic peoples.
The Ionians, one of the main Greek peoples.
Inhabitants of Anatolia in ancient times, were known as "Tybareni". They emigrated to the West and the Tyrrhenian Sea was given such name after them. They may be related to the Etruscans.
Reported as Moshkhi by Assyrians, they are identified with the Massageti or Meshkhetians, that inhabited within Togarmah's territories. Their land was also known as "Iberia" (today is Georgia, in the Caucasus), whose capital was Mtskhet, and they were also called "Abaski". In fact, some hordes of Meshkhetians emigrated to the West and settled by the Pyrenees; since then, that land is known as Iberia, too, while their descendants are still called Basks (whose national name is Euskadi). Those remaining in the Caucasus area were also known as Alanians or Ossetians.
Any idea of relating them to Moscow is simply ridiculous, as there is not any single hint that may link Meshekh with Moscow or Meshkhetians with Russians, who are a completely different people. There is not even any similarity between both words: In Hebrew Meshekh is written "M-SH-KH" [MEM-SHIN-KAF], while Moscow is written "M-S-Q-V-H" [MEM-SAMEKH-QUF-VAV(or BET)-HE]. This fact is enough to discard any further speculation.
The Thracians, who inhabited in the Southeast of the Balkans. This was a generic designation for a complex of peoples that originally dwelled in the Southern Balkans and around the Marmara Sea, probably related with Germanic peoples (Goths, Franks, Saxons, Angles, etc.).
The ancient Scandinavians were originally in the Kavkaz, from where they emigrated mainly to the Nordic lands, but also some group known as "Sikani" settled in the Western half of Sicily. The name of Ashkenaz is still present in some toponyms like Skĺne (Southern Sweden) and Skandinavia. Centuries later, they conquered and colonized many areas of Europe and overseas and were known as Normanns or Vikings. Finnic inhabitants of Eastern Europe called them "Ruotsi", from where the name Ross and Russia come.
The Slavic peoples, whose original land was the basin of the Pripyat and the Karpathian mountains, from where they expanded throughout all Eastern Europe.
The land known by Assyrians as "Tilgarimmu" was the territory around Mount Ararat (Urartu), identified with ancient Armenia. Thargamos is also considered by Georgians as the founder of their nation. It seems that both peoples, Armenians and Georgians, have this common progenitor. Armenians' nation is called Hayassa after Haik, son of Togarmah, while Georgians' is called Sakart'velo after Karthlos, son of Togarmah.
The Aeolians, a Greek people from whom Ellas, the national name of Greece, comes. In Egyptian inscriptions they are referred to as Alashia, and Hittites called them Alasiya. This name was also applied to Cyprus. Elisha is present also in the name of the Greeks' paradise, Elysean Fields.
The Tartessian people, that inhabited Southern Spain in ancient times. There is still a town called Tarsis in Andalusia. Phoenicians had an intense trade with them, so that a special kind of vessels they built for sailing long distances were called "ships of Tarshish". Tartessians disappeared from history after mixing with Phoenicians, Celtic and Iberian peoples.
Kittim are the Italic peoples, settled in "Magna Grecia" –Southern Italy– and northwards up to the territory of the Aetruscans.
The ancient Dardanians, people of the Northwest Anatolia to whom the city of Troy belonged. Their name is still present in the Strait of Dardanelles that divides Europe from Asia.