The Kings List

 

Kings of Babylon

THE BABYLONIAN "KINGS" BEFORE THE DELUGE

The history of Babylon according to the first inhabitants of that region, the Sumerian, begins at the very Creation of the world. They have left different records of ten "kings" who reigned in the area "before the great Deluge covered the whole Earth". These ten kings may correspond to the ten generations mentioned in the Scriptures (Bereshyit ch.5). These ten "kings" are thought to have settled their capital in one of the lower Mesopotamian cities. The following is the Dynastic Record of Larsa and the correspondence to the ten Patriarchs of Genesis.

The Sumerian account of Larsa

Bible genealogy

King’s name

Reigned in

Patriarchs

Alulim

Eridu

Adam

Alalmar

Eridu

Shet

Enmenlu’anna

Badgurgurru

Enosh

Kichunna

Larsa

Qenan

Enmengal’anna

Badgurgurru

Mahalal’el

Dumuzi

Badgurgurru

Yered

Sibzianna

Larak

Hanuk

Emenduranna

Sippar

Methushelah

Uburratu

Shurruppak

Lemek

Utnapishtim (Xinsuddu)

Shurruppak

Noach

The Sumerian history records that "in the days of Uthnapishtim (Xinsuddu, in other texts), the Flood was announced and he built an ark to save himself and his family"... Other traditions identify this person with the Sumerian king Gilgamesh.

THE BABYLONIAN DYNASTIC PERIODS

Nimrud, founder of Bab-El (The gate of G-d), then re-named Bab-Ilani (The Gate of Elohim), was the first SUMERIAN king. After he built the Tower of Babel, the kingdom lost unity and Sumerian cities became self-ruled "State-Cities". The following is a resumed account of the main State-Cities and their kings (many of them purely legendary):

Kings of Kysh (Kush)

Kings of Uruk (Erekh)

Kings of Ur

Kings of Lagash

Ga-Ur Gulla'nidaba'anna'gad
Pala-Kinatim
Nangish-Lishma
Bahima
Buanun
Kalibum
Galumum
Zukakin
Atab
Mashda
Arpu-RimEtana
Balih
En-Mennuna
Melam-Kishi
Bargal-Nuna
Mes-Simug
Tizkar
Il-Kum
Il-Tasadum
Enmebaragisi
Agga
Uhub
Mesilim
Dadasig
Mamagalla
Galbum
Tug'e
Mennunna
Enbi-Ishtar
Lugalmu
Ibiera
Kubaba (Queen)
Puzur-Sin
Ur-Zababa
Simudar
Usi-Watar
Ishtarmuti
Ishmeshamash
Nannia
Dumuzi
Meskalamdug
Enhegal
Enmerkar
Akalamdug
Lugalshagensur
Lugalbanda
Mesannepadda
Urnanshe
Meskiangasher
Aanepadda
Eannatum
Gilgamesh
Meskiagnunna
Entemena
Urlugal I
Annanne
Lugalanda
Utulkalamma
Meskiagnanna
Urukagina
Laba'sum
Elulu
- Akkadian rule -
Ennundara'anna
Balulu
- Gutian rule -
Meshe
- LAGASH rule -
Lugalushumgal
Melamanna
Une
Puzurmama
Lugalkitun
Kaku
Ur-Ningirsu I
Enpirigdu'anna
Elili
Pirigme
Urlugal II
- Akkadian rule -
Lubaba
Arga'ande'a
Urnammu
Lugula
Enshakkushanna
Shulgi
Inimkug
Lugalkinishedudu
Amarsu’ena
Urbaba I
Lugalkisalsi
Shusu’en
Gudea
Lugaltar
Ibbisu’en
Ur-Ningirsu II
Lugalzaggesi
Ugme
- Akkadian rule -
Urgar
Urnigin
Urbaba II

Urgigir

Urmama

Lugalmelam

Namahani

Kudda

- UR rule -

Puzur-Ili

Urutu

Utuchengal
- UR rule -


The Sumerian states collapsed with the expansion of Semitic peoples, and the AKKADIAN kings took control over the lower Mesopotamia. The first Akkadian king mentioned is the same as the first Assyrian king, SHARYUKENU, known in history as SARGON, is to be identified with the Biblical ASHUR (Assur), founder of the Assyrian state. This Ashur seems to have been the king of the State-City of Akkad in rivalry with Nimrud, king of Sumerians, and then emigrated to found Assur in the Northern Mesopotamia, where Nimrud had settled his own colonies at Kalah (also called Nimrud).


THE KINGS OF AKKAD

Sharyukenu (Sargon I)

Rimush

Manishtushu

Naramsu’in/Naram-sin

Sharkalisharri

Elulu'mesh

Dud'u

Shu'durul


Akkadians did not keep a complete unity in lower Mesopotamia during the early Semitic period, and cities were still self-ruled. This is known as the "Isin-Larsa Period".

Kings of Isin

Years
(Jewish/b.c.e.)

Kings of Larsa

Years
(Jewish/b.c.e.)
Ishbi’erra
1743-1775/2017-1985
Naplanum
1735-1755/2025-2005
Shu'ilishu
1775-1785/1985-1975
Ymisium
1755-1783/2005-1977
Iddindagan
1785-1806/1975-1954
Samium
1783-1818/1977-1942
Ishmedagan
1806-1825/1954-1935
Zabaya
1818-1827/1942-1933
Lipitishtar
1825-1836/1935-1924
Gungunnum
1827-1854/1933-1906
Urninurta
1836-1864/1924-1896
Abisare
1854-1865/1906-1895
Bursin
1864-1886/1896-1874
Sumu’el
1865-1894/1895-1866
Lipitenlil
1886-1891/1874-1869
Nuradad
1894-1910/1866-1850
Erra’imitti
1891-1899/1869-1861
Siniddinam
1910-1917/1850-1843
Enlilbani
1899-1923/1861-1837
Sineribam
1917-1919/1843-1841
Zambiya
1923-1926/1837-1834
Siniqisham
1919-1924/1841-1836
Iterpisha
1926-1929/1834-1831
Silli'adad
1924-1925/1836-1835
Urdukuga
1929-1932/1831-1828
Varadsin
1925-1937/1835-1823
Sinmagir
1932-1943/1828-1817
Eri’aku
Damiqilishu
1943-1967/1817-1793
Kudurmabug
Rimsin
...-1997/...-1763

 

Then, the city of Babylon was growing in importance and wealth, until the achievement of hegemony in all the land of Shin’ar, also known as Chaldea, so that the old name of the land was replaced by historians by the most common denomination of "Babylonia".

The first Babylonian kings were anyway of Sumerian origin; Babel was ruled by Nimrod’s dynasty, known as the "Amurru", that were already settled also in Kana’an. The most important king of this dynasty was Hammurapi, who achieved not only unifying the lower Mesopotamia but had also extended his influence to Kanaanite cities. This Hammurapi is recorded in the Bible as Amraphel, in alliance with other kings – the king of Larsa Eri’aku (Aryokh) among them – in an attempt to reinforce their hegemony over Amorite kings in Kana’an (Bereshyit, ch. 14).

 

The Kings of BABYLON

Dynasty of Amurru

Kings

Years (Jewish / b.c.e.)

Nimrod

1660 (?) / 2100 (?)

 
Sumuabum

1865-1879 / 1895-1881

Sumula’el

1879-1915 / 1881-1845

Sabium

1879-1894 / 1845-1830

Aplisin

1894-1947 / 1830-1813

Sinmuballit

1947-1967 / 1813-1793

Hammurapi

1967-2010 / 1793-1750

Samsuiluna

2010-2048 / 1750-1712

Abi’eshush

2048-2076 / 1712-1684

Ammiditana

2076-2113 / 1684-1647

Ammisaduqa

2113-2134 / 1647-1626

Samsuditana

2134-2165 / 1626-1595

Dynasty of Kassites

Kings

Years (Jewish / b.c.e.)

Gandash
Agum I
~ 2060/ ~ 1700
Kashtiliash I
Ushshi
~ 2110/ ~ 1650
Abirattash
Kashtiliash II
Urzigurumash
Harbashihu
~ 2160/ ~ 1600
Tiptakzi
Agum II
~ 2210/ ~ 1550
Burnaburiash I
Kashtiliash III

2260-2290 / 1500-1470

Ulamburiash
2290-... / 1470-...
Agum III

  ...-2310 / ...-1450

Kadashmanharbe
2310-... / 1450-...
Kara’indash

...-2330 / ...-1430

Kurigalzu I

2330-2360 / 1430-1400

Kadashmanenlil I

2360-2380 / 1400-1380

Burnaburiash III

2380-2408 / 1380-1352

Karakhardash, Nazibugash

2408-2416 / 1352-1343

Kurigalzu II

2417-2442 / 1343-1318

Nazimaruttash

2442-2468 / 1318-1292

Kadashmanturgu

2468-2486 / 1292-1274

Kadashmanenlil II

2486-2492 / 1274-1268

Kudurenlil

2492-2502 / 1268-1258

Shagaraktishuriash

2502-2521 / 1258-1239

Kashtiliash IV

2521-2529 / 1239-1231

Enlilnadinshumi
2529-... / 1231-...
Kadashmankharbe II
Adadshuma'iddina
Adadshumussur

...-2567 / ...-1193

Melishichu

2567-2582 / 1193-1178

Marduk’apaliddina I

2582-2595 / 1178-1165

Zababashumiddina

2595-2596 / 1165-1164

Enlilnadinachkhe

2596-2599 / 1164-1160

Dynasty of Isin

Kings

Years (Jewish / b.c.e.)

Mardukabitachkheshu

2599-2618 / 1160-1142

Ittimarduk'balatu

2618-2629 / 1142-1131

Ninurta-nadinshumi

2629-2635 / 1131-1125

Nabukudurrussur

 2635-2653 / 1125-1107

Enlilnadinapli

2653-2658 / 1107-1102

Marduknadinachkhi

2658-2676 / 1102-1084

Mardukshapikzeri

2676-2692 / 1084-1068

Adad'apaliddin

2692-2714 / 1068-1046

Marduk-akhi'eriba

2714-2715 / 1046-1045

Mardukzer

2715-2727 / 1045-1033

Nabushumlibur

2727-2731 / 1033-1029

Chaldean Dynasty

Kings

Years (Jewish / b.c.e.)

Simmashshikhu

2731-2750 / 1029-1010

Eamukhinshumi

2750-2752 / 1010-1008

Kashshunadin

2752-2755 / 1008-1005

Eulmashshakinshumi

2755-2773 / 1005-987

Ninurta'kudurrussur I

2773-2775 / 987-985

Shiriqtishukamunu

2775-2776 / 985-984

Marbiti'apalussur

2776-2780 / 984-980

Nabumukinapli

 2780-2816 / 980-944

Ninurta'kudurrussur I

2816-2818 / 944-942

Marbiti'achiddin

2818-2819 / 942-941

Shamashmudammiq

2819-2856 / 941-904

Nabushumishkun I

2856-2872 / 904-888

Nabushumukin

2872-2878 / 888-882

Nabu’apaliddin

2878-2908 / 882-852

Mardukzakirshumi I

2908-2934 / 852-826

Mardukbalatzuiqbi

2934-2947 / 826-813

Bab’achiddin

2947-2950 / 813-810

Ninurta'apalekur  
Adadshumibai  
Mardukbelzeri  
Marduk'apalussur  
Eribamarduk

2965-2996 / 795-764

Nabushumishkun II

2996-3014 / 764-748

Nabunassar

3014-3028 / 748-734

Nabunadinzer

3028-3029/ 734-733

Nabushumishkun III

3029/733

Nabum'ukinzer

3029-3033 / 733-729

Assyrian Dominion

Kings

Years (Jewish / b.c.e.)

Pul (Tiglat-Pileser III)

3033-3035 / 729-727

Ululai (Shalmaneser V)

 3035-3040 / 727-722

Marduk'apaliddina II
(Chaldean ruler)

3040-3052 / 722-710

Sharyukenu II (Sargon II)

3052-3057 / 710-705

Sinakhi'eriba (Sennakherib)

3057-3059 / 705-703

Chaldean Dynasty
(resettled under Assyrian Dominion)

Kings

Years (Jewish / b.c.e.)

Mardukzakirshumi II

3059 / 703

Marduk'apaliddina II

3059 / 703

Belibni

3059-3060 / 703-700

Assurnadinshum

3060-3066 / 700-694

Nergal'ushezib (Elamite ruler)

3066-3067 / 694-693

Mushezib-Marduk (Elamite ruler)

3068-3072 / 693-689

Assyrian Dominion

Kings

Years (Jewish / b.c.e.)

Sinakhi'eriba (Sennakherib)

3072-3080 / 689-681

Ashurachiddin (Asarhadon)

3080-3092 / 681-669

Shamashshumukin
3092-3113 / 669-648
Kandalanu
3113-3135 / 648-626

Chaldean Dynasty

Kings

Years (Jewish / b.c.e.)

Nabupal'ussur (Nabopolassar)

3135-3156 / 626-605

Nabukudurnussur [Nebukhadnezzar]


3156-3200 / 605-561

Evilmardukh

3200-3202 / 561-559

Nergalsarezer (Neriglissar)

3202-3204 / 559-557

Labashmarduk (Laburusharkud)

3204-3206 / 557-555

Nabuna’id - Belshatzar

3206-3222 / 555-539

 

different ways of writing:
"NEBUKHADNETZAR, KING OF BABYLON"

The last king of Babylon, Nabuna'id, retired himself in his residences in Arabia and the actual ruler was his son, Belshatzar. Babylon fell in 3222 before Persians and Medes. This fact marked the end of Semitic hegemony in the Middle East for about 1200 years, that is until Arabs’ take-over in history.

Assyrian Kings

The Assyrian nation was founded by Ashur, and there was a continuous succession of native kings reigning until the collapse of their empire. Ashur was the first Assyrian king, though it is difficult to define when the Akkadian period ends to give place to the Assyrian era. In fact, the early Assyrian kings are identifiable with the Akkadian sovereigns, and Ashur himself may be the same person as Sargon I, the first Akkadian king. In such case, the empty space between Ashur and the following kings may be partially completed with the Akkadian kings listed above (Rimush, Manishtushu, Naramsu’in, Sharkalisharri, Elulu'mesh, Dud'u, Shu'durul ).

Dynasty of Ashur

Kings

Years (Jewish / b.c.e.)

Ashur (Sharyukenu I of Akkad ?)

~ 1660/ ~ 2100 (?)

...

The "Tent Dweller Kings"

Tudiya
Adamu
Yangi
Suhlāmu
Harharu
Mandaru
Imtsu
Hartsu
Didānu
Hanū
Zuabu
Nuabu
Abazu
Belū
Azarah
Ushpia
Apiashal  

Dynasty of Ashur

Halź  
Samānu  
Hayāni  
Ilu Mer  
Yakmesi  
Yakmeni  
Yazkur-El  
Ila Kabkabū  
Amīnum  
Sulili
Kikkiya
Akkiya
Puzhurashur I
Shallimachkhe
Ilushuma
Erishum I
Ikunum
Puzhurashur II
Naramsu’in
Erishum II
Shamsi'adad I

1947-1979 / 1813-1781

...
Ishmedagan I
Mut'ashkur
Rimush
Asinum
Puzhursin
Ashurdugul
Ashur'apaliddin
Nazir-sin
Sin-namir
Ipki'ishtar
Adad'tzalulu
Adasi
Bel'bani

2060-2070/ 1700-1690

Libaya

2070-2087/ 1690-1673

Sharma'adad I

2087-2099/ 1673-1661

Iptarsin

2099-2111/ 1661-1649

Bazaya

2111-2139/ 1649-1621

Lullaya

2139-2145/ 1621-1615

Kidinninwa

2145-2159/ 1615-1601

Sharma'adad II

2159-2162/ 1601-1598

Erishum III

2162-2175/ 1598-1585

Shamsi'adad II

2175-2181/ 1585-1579

Ishmedagan II

2181-2197/ 1579-1563

Shamsi'adad III

2197-2213/ 1563-1547

Ashurnirari I

2213-2239/ 1547-1521

Puzhurashur III

2239-2263/ 1521-1497

Enlilnazir I

2263-2277/ 1497-1483

Nurili

2277-2285/ 1483-1475

Ashurshaduni

2285-2288/ 1475-1472

Ashurrabi I

2288-2308/ 1472-1452

Ashurnadinachkhe I

2308-2328/ 1452-1433

Ashurbelnishyekhu

2328-2336 / 1433-1424

Ashurnirari II

2334-2341/ 1426-1419

Ashur'bel-nisheshu

2341-2350/ 1419-1410

Ashur'rim-nisheshu

2350-2357/ 1410-1403

Ashurnadinachkhe II

2357-2367/ 1403-1393

Eriba'adad I

2357-2394/ 1393-1366

Ashur-uballit I

2394-2430/ 1366-1330

Enlilnirari

2430-2440/ 1330-1320

Arikdenili

2440-2452/ 1320-1308

Adadnirari I

2452-2484/ 1308-1276

Shalmaneser II

2484-2514/ 1276-1246

Tukultininurta I

2514-2551/1246-1209

Ashurnadinapli

2551-2555/ 1209-1205

Ashurnirari III

2555-2561/ 1205-1199

Enlilkudurrussur

2561-2566/ 1199-1194

Ninurta'apalekur I

2566-2579/ 1194-1181

Ashurdan I

2579-... / 1181-...

Ninurta-Tukulti'ashur
Mutakkil'nusku

...-2625 / ...-1135

Ashurreshishi I

2625-2643 / 1135-1117

Tiglat-Pileser I

2643-2683 / 1117-1077

Asharedapalekur

2683-2686 / 1077-1074

Ashurbelkala I

2686-... / 1074-...

Enlilrabi
Ashurbelkala II

...-2702 / ...-1058

Eriba'adad II

2702-2704 / 1058-1056

Shamsi'adad IV

2704-2708 / 1056-1052

Ashurnazirpal I

2708-2727 / 1052-1033

Ashurbanipal I

2727-2746 / 1033-1014

Ashurrabi II

2746-2787/ 1014-973

Ashurreshishi II

2787-2792 / 973-968

Tiglat-Pileser II

2792-2825 / 968-935

Ashurdan II

2825-2848 / 935-912

Adadnirari II

2848-2869 / 912-891

Tukultininurta II

2869-2876 / 891-884

Ashurnazirpal II

2876-2901 / 884-859

Shalmaneser III

2901-2936 / 859-824

Shamsi'adad V

2936-2950 / 824-810

Shammuramat (Queen)

2950-2954 / 810-806

Adadnirari III

2954-2978 / 806-782

Shalmaneser IV

2978-2988 / 782-772

Ashurdan III

2988-3006 / 772-754

Ashurnirari IV

3006-3014 / 754-746

Tiglat-Pileser III

3014-3033 / 746-727

Shalmaneser V

3033-3038 / 727-722

Sharyukenu II (Sargon II)

3038-3055 / 722-705

Sinakhi'eriba (Sennakherib)

3055-3079 / 705-681

Ashurachiddin (Asarhadon)

3079-3091 / 681-669

Ashurbanipal II

3091-3134 / 669-626

Ashur'etif-ilani

3134-3136 / 626-624

Sinshumlishir

3136-3137 / 624-623

Sinsharishkun

3137-3148 / 623-612

Ashur-uballit II

3148-3153 / 612-607

The Southern Assyrian tribe of the Chaldees inherited the Assyrian Empire and settled the capital in Babylon.